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# Physical Modelling in Geotechnics

DOI link for Physical Modelling in Geotechnics

Physical Modelling in Geotechnics book

# Physical Modelling in Geotechnics

DOI link for Physical Modelling in Geotechnics

Physical Modelling in Geotechnics book

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## ABSTRACT

**Physical Modelling in Geotechnics** collects more than 1500 pages of peer-reviewed papers written by researchers from over 30 countries, and presented at the 9th International Conference on Physical Modelling in Geotechnics 2018 (City, University of London, UK 17-20 July 2018). The ICPMG series has grown such that two volumes of proceedings were required to publish all contributions. The books represent a substantial body of work in four years. **Physical Modelling in Geotechnics **contains 230 papers, including eight keynote and themed lectures representing the state-of-the-art in physical modelling research in aspects as diverse as fundamental modelling including sensors, imaging, modelling techniques and scaling, onshore and offshore foundations, dams and embankments, retaining walls and deep excavations, ground improvement and environmental engineering, tunnels and geohazards including significant contributions in the area of seismic engineering. ISSMGE TC104 have identified areas for special attention including education in physical modelling and the promotion of physical modelling to industry. With this in mind there is a special themed paper on education, focusing on both undergraduate and postgraduate teaching as well as practicing geotechnical engineers.

Physical modelling has entered a new era with the advent of exciting work on real time interfaces between physical and numerical modelling and the growth of facilities and expertise that enable development of so called ‘megafuges’ of 1000gtonne capacity or more; capable of modelling the largest and most complex of geotechnical challenges. **Physical Modelling in Geotechnics **will be of interest to professionals, engineers and academics interested or involved in geotechnics, geotechnical engineering and related areas.

The 9th International Conference on Physical Modelling in Geotechnics was organised by the Multi Scale Geotechnical Engineering Research Centre at City, University of London under the auspices of Technical Committee 104 of the International Society for Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering (ISSMGE). City, University of London, are pleased to host the prestigious international conference for the first time having initiated and hosted the first regional conference, Eurofuge, ten years ago in 2008. Quadrennial regional conferences in both Europe and Asia are now well established events giving doctoral researchers, in particular, the opportunity to attend an international conference in this rapidly evolving specialist area.

This is volume 1 of a 2-volume set.

## TABLE OF CONTENTS

part 1|109 pages

Keynote and Themed lectures

chapter 1|18 pages

#### Modelling tunnel behaviour under seismic actions: An integrated approach

chapter 2|12 pages

#### An example of effective mentoring for research centres

chapter 3|9 pages

#### Geotechnical modelling for offshore renewables

chapter 5|25 pages

#### The role of centrifuge modelling in capturing whole-life responses of geotechnical infrastructure to optimise design

chapter 7|14 pages

#### Physical modelling of structural and biological soil reinforcement

part 2|50 pages

1. Sample preparation and characterisation

chapter 9|6 pages

#### Investigation into 3D printing of granular media

chapter 10|6 pages

#### Undrained shear strength profile of normally and overconsolidated kaolin clay

chapter 11|6 pages

#### LEAP GWU 2017: Investigating different methods for verifying the relative density of a centrifuge model

chapter 12|6 pages

#### Centrifuge modelling of Continuous Compaction Control (CCC)

chapter 13|6 pages

#### Shear wave velocity: Comparison between centrifuge and triaxial based measurements

chapter 14|5 pages

#### Development of layered models for geotechnical centrifuge tests

chapter 15|6 pages

#### The influence of temperature on shear strength at a soil-structure interface

chapter 16|6 pages

#### Development of a 3D clay printer for the preparation of heterogeneous models

part 3|46 pages

2. Engineered platforms

chapter 17|6 pages

#### Centrifuge modelling utility pipe behaviour subject to vehicular loading

chapter 18|6 pages

#### Experimental model study on traffic loading induced earth pressure reduction using EPS geofoam

chapter 19|4 pages

#### Physical modelling of roads in expansive clay subjected to wetting-drying cycles

chapter 20|6 pages

#### Scaled physical modelling of ultra-thin continuously reinforced concrete pavement

chapter 21|6 pages

#### The effect of relative stiffness on soil-structure interaction under vehicle loads

chapter 22|5 pages

#### Plate bearing tests for working platforms

chapter 23|6 pages

#### Geotechnical model tests on bearing capacity of working platforms for mobile construction machines and cranes

chapter 24|4 pages

#### 1g physical modelling of the stoneblowing technique for the improvement of railway track maintenance

part 4|32 pages

3. Physical/Numerical interface and comparisons

chapter 25|6 pages

#### Millisecond interfacing of physical models with ABAQUS

chapter 26|6 pages

#### Verification and validation of two-phase material point method simulation of pore water pressure rise and dissipation in earthquakes

chapter 27|5 pages

#### Centrifuge and numerical investigations of rotated box structures

chapter 28|6 pages

#### Multibillion particle DEM to simulate centrifuge model tests of geomaterials

chapter 29|6 pages

#### Trapdoor model test and DEM simulation associated with arching

part 5|38 pages

4. Scaling

chapter 30|6 pages

#### Variability of small scale model reinforced concrete and implications for geotechnical centrifuge testing

chapter 31|6 pages

#### Modelling experiments to investigate soil-water retention in geotechnical centrifuge

chapter 32|6 pages

#### Studies on the use of hydraulic gradient similitude method for determining permeability of soils

chapter 33|6 pages

#### A new insight into the behaviour of seepage flow in centrifuge modelling

chapter 34|6 pages

#### Applicability of the generalised scaling law to pile-inclined ground system

part 6|58 pages

5. Sensors

chapter 36|6 pages

#### Investigation of an OFDR fibre Bragg system for use in geotechnical scale modelling

chapter 37|7 pages

#### Free fall cone tests in kaolin clay

chapter 38|6 pages

#### A new shared miniature cone penetrometer for centrifuge testing

chapter 39|6 pages

#### Shear wave velocity measurement in a large geotechnical laminar box using bender elements

chapter 41|6 pages

#### A field model investigating pipeline leak detection using discrete fibre optic sensors

chapter 43|5 pages

#### New method for full field measurement of pore water pressures

chapter 44|6 pages

#### Ambient pressure calibration for cone penetrometer test: Necessary?

part 7|152 pages

6. Modelling techniques

chapter 45|6 pages

#### Development of a rainfall simulator in centrifuge using Modified Mariotte’s principle

chapter 46|6 pages

#### Development of model structural dampers for dynamic centrifuge testing

chapter 47|6 pages

#### Experimental evaluation of two-stage scaling in physical modelling of soil-foundation-structure systems

chapter 49|6 pages

#### Ground-borne vibrations from piles: Testing within a geotechnical centrifuge

chapter 50|6 pages

#### A new Stockwell mean square frequency methodology for analysing centrifuge data

chapter 51|5 pages

#### Novel experimental device to simulate tsunami loading in a geotechnical centrifuge

chapter 52|6 pages

#### A new apparatus to examine the role of seepage flow on internal instability of model soil

chapter 53|6 pages

#### Centrifuge model test on the instability of an excavator descending a slope

chapter 55|6 pages

#### Application of 3D printing technology in geotechnical-physical modelling: Tentative experiment practice

chapter 56|6 pages

#### Scaling of plant roots for geotechnical centrifuge tests using juvenile live roots or 3D printed analogues

chapter 57|6 pages

#### Revisit of the empirical prediction methods for liquefaction-induced lateral spread by using the LEAP centrifuge model tests

chapter 58|5 pages

#### Physical modelling of atmospheric conditions during drying

chapter 59|6 pages

#### Centrifuge model tests on excavation in Shanghai clay using in-flight excavation tools

chapter 60|6 pages

#### Effect of root spacing on interpretation of blade penetration tests―full-scale physical modelling

chapter 61|6 pages

#### Development of a centrifuge testing method for stability analyses of breakwater foundation under combined actions of earthquake and tsunami

chapter 62|6 pages

#### Modelling of rocking structures in a centrifuge

chapter 63|6 pages

#### A new test setup for studying sand behaviour inside an immersed tunnel joint gap

chapter 64|6 pages

#### 3D printing of masonry structures for centrifuge modelling

chapter 65|6 pages

#### A mechanical displacement control model tunnel for simulating eccentric ground loss in the centrifuge

chapter 66|4 pages

#### Preliminary results of laboratory analysis of sand fluidisation

chapter 67|4 pages

#### Rolling test in geotechnical centrifuge for ore liquefaction analysis

chapter 68|5 pages

#### Design and performance of an electro-mechanical pile driving hammer for geo-centrifuge

chapter 69|6 pages

#### A new heating-cooling system for centrifuge testing of thermo-active geo-structures

chapter 70|6 pages

#### Physical modelling of soil-structure interaction of tree root systems under lateral loads

part 8|37 pages

7. Facilities

chapter 71|5 pages

#### A new environmental chamber for the HKUST centrifuge facility

chapter 72|6 pages

#### Upgrades to the NHRI – 400 g-tonne geotechnical centrifuge

chapter 73|6 pages

#### A new 240 g-tonne geotechnical centrifuge at the University of Western Australia

chapter 74|5 pages

#### Development of a rainfall simulator for climate modelling

chapter 75|6 pages

#### The development of a small centrifuge for testing unsaturated soils

chapter 76|4 pages

#### Full scale laminar box for 1-g physical modelling of liquefaction

part 9|26 pages

8. Education

chapter 77|5 pages

#### Using small-scale seepage physical models to generate didactic material for soil mechanics classes

chapter 78|5 pages

#### Centrifuge modelling in the undergraduate curriculum—a 5 year reflection

chapter 79|5 pages

#### Geotechnical centrifuge facility for teaching at City, University of London

chapter 80|6 pages

#### Development of a teaching centrifuge learning environment using mechanically stabilized earth walls

part 10|44 pages

9. Offshore

chapter 81|6 pages

#### Development of a series of 2D backfill ploughing physical models for pipelines and cables

chapter 82|6 pages

#### Capacity of vertical and horizontal plate anchors in sand under normal and shear loading

chapter 83|5 pages

#### A novel experimental-numerical approach to model buried pipes subjected to reverse faulting

chapter 84|6 pages

#### Wave-induced liquefaction and floatation of pipeline buried in sand beds

chapter 85|6 pages

#### Surface pipeline buckling on clay: Demonstration

chapter 86|5 pages

#### Centrifuge modelling for lateral pile-soil pressure on passive part of pile group with platform

chapter 87|6 pages

#### Centrifuge model tests and circular slip analyses to evaluate reinforced composite-type breakwater stability against tsunami

part 11|92 pages

10. Offshore – shallow foundations

chapter 88|5 pages

#### Centrifuge tests on the influence of vacuum on wave impact on a caisson

chapter 89|6 pages

#### Physical modelling of active suction for offshore renewables

chapter 90|5 pages

#### Cyclic behaviour of unit bucket for tripod foundation system under various loading characteristics via centrifuge

chapter 91|7 pages

#### Physical modelling of reinstallation of a novel spudcan nearby existing footprint

chapter 92|6 pages

#### Reduction in soil penetration resistance for suction-assisted installation of bucket foundation in sand

chapter 93|6 pages

#### Evaluation of seismic coefficient for gravity quay wall via centrifuge modelling

chapter 94|3 pages

#### Sleeve effect on the post-consolidation extraction resistance of spudcan foundation in overconsolidated clay

chapter 95|5 pages

#### Measuring the behaviour of dual row retaining walls in dry sands using centrifuge tests

chapter 96|6 pages

#### Verification of improvement plan for seismic retrofits of existing quay wall in small scale fishing port

chapter 97|6 pages

#### Visualisation of mechanisms governing suction bucket installation in dense sand

chapter 99|6 pages

#### Evaluation of seismic behaviour of reinforced earth wall based on design practices and centrifuge model tests

chapter 100|6 pages

#### Centrifuge tests investigating the effect of suction caisson installation in dense sand on the state of the soil plug

chapter 101|6 pages

#### Centrifuge model tests on stabilisation countermeasures of a composite breakwater under tsunami actions

chapter 102|6 pages

#### Interaction between jack-up spudcan and adjacent piles with non-perfect pile cap

part 12|86 pages

11. Offshore – deep foundations