C Program to Subtract of Two Matrices

  • Write a C program for subtraction of two matrix.

A matrix is a two-dimentional array of elements. The size of a matrix is defined as the number of rows and columns of that matrix. The horizontal and vertical lines of elements in a matrix are called rows and columns of a matrix. The element in the i-th row and j-th column of a matrix A is referred as (i,j), or A[i,j].
Subtracting two same-size matrices is very similar to adding matrices with the only difference being subtracting corresponding entries.


  • Matrix subtraction is defined for two matrices of the same dimensions, If the size of matrices are not same , then the difference of these two matrices is said to be undefined.
  • The subtraction of two M × N matrices A and B, denoted by A - B, is again an M × N matrix computed by subtracting corresponding elements.
Algorithm to subtract of two matrices
Let A and B are two matrices of dimension M X N and D is the difference matrix(D = A - B). Below mentioned steps explains how we can find difference of two matrices.
  • To subtract two matrices we have to subtract their corresponding elements. For example, D[i][j] = A[i][j] - B[i][j].
  • Traverse both matrices row wise(first all elements of a row, then jump to next row) using two loops(check line number 29 and 30 of below program).
  • For every element A[i][j], subtract it with corresponding element B[i][j] and store the result in Difference matrix at D[i][j].
Matrix subtraction program in C

C Program for subtraction two matrix

/*
* C Program to subtract two matrices
*/
#include <stdio.h>
#include <conio.h>

int main(){
    int rows, cols, rowCounter, colCounter;
    int firstMatrix[50][50], secondMatrix[50][50], differenceMatrix[50][50];
    printf("Enter Rows and Columns of Matrix\n");
    scanf("%d %d", &rows, &cols);
    
    printf("Enter first Matrix of size %dX%d\n", rows, cols);
    /*  Input first matrix*/
    for(rowCounter = 0; rowCounter < rows; rowCounter++){
        for(colCounter = 0; colCounter < cols; colCounter++){
            scanf("%d", &firstMatrix[rowCounter][colCounter]);
        }
    }
    /*  Input second matrix*/
    printf("Enter second Matrix of size %dX%d\n", rows, cols);
    for(rowCounter = 0; rowCounter < rows; rowCounter++){
        for(colCounter = 0; colCounter < cols; colCounter++){
            scanf("%d", &secondMatrix[rowCounter][colCounter]);
        }
    }
    /* Subtract corresponding elements of both matrices 
       differenceMatrix[i][j] = firstmatrix[i][j] + secondMatrix[i][j] */
    for(rowCounter = 0; rowCounter < rows; rowCounter++){
        for(colCounter = 0; colCounter < cols; colCounter++){
            differenceMatrix[rowCounter][colCounter] = firstMatrix[rowCounter][colCounter]
                - secondMatrix[rowCounter][colCounter];
        }
    }
    /* Print difference matrix*/
    printf("Difference Matrix\n");
    for(rowCounter = 0; rowCounter < rows; rowCounter++){
        for(colCounter = 0; colCounter < cols; colCounter++){
            printf("%d ", differenceMatrix[rowCounter][colCounter]);
        }
        printf("\n");
    }
    getch();
    return 0;
}
Program Output
Enter Rows and Columns of Matrix
2 2
Enter first Matrix of size 2X2
0 2
1 3
Enter second Matrix of size 2X2
3 2
1 0
Difference Matrix
-3 0
0 3
Enter Rows and Columns of Matrix
3 2
Enter first Matrix of size 3X2
2 1
0 1
7 2
Enter second Matrix of size 3X2
0 0
-2 1
2 -3
Difference Matrix
2 1
2 0
5 5

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